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ALPHA ENERGIES OF DIFFERENT SOURCES WITH THE MULTI-CHANNEL - PHYWE - P2522015
PP2522015
An alpha-spectrometer, consisting of a photodetector, a preamplifier, a pulse height analyser and a recording device for registration of the spectra is calibrated by means of an open alpha-emitter of known alpha energy (241Am). The energy spectrum of a radium source which is in equilibrium with its decay products, is recorded and evaluated. The alpha-energies found in this way are allocated to the corresponding nuclides of the radium decay series.
Tasks
The Alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra is recorded with multichannel analyzer.
The calibration spectrum of the open 241Am alpha-emitter is recorded at the same settings.
The alpha-energies corresponding to the individual peaks of the alphaspectrum of the radium are calculated and compared to the values in the literature.
What you can learn about
Decay series
Radioactive equilibrium
Isotopic properties
Decay energy
Particle energy
Potential well model of the atomic nucleus
Tunnel effect
Geiger-Nuttal law
Semiconductor
Barrier layer
Prijs op aanvraag
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BASIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES- PHYWE - P2110105
PP2110105
Principle
Caliper gauges, micrometers and spherometers are used for the accurate measurement of lengths, thicknesses, diameters and curvatures. Measuring procedures, accuracy of measurement and reading accuracy are demonstrated.
Benefits
Foundation of every practical sciences lab course
Aquire the skills to measure basic mechanical variables
Realise the limits of measuring accuracy
Combine different measurements to determine a quantity of interest
Determine curvatures using the spherometer
Tasks
Determination of the volume of tubes with the caliper gauge.
Determination of the thickness of wires, cubes and plates with the micrometer.
Determination of the thickness of plates and the radius of curvature of watch glasses with the spherometer.
What you can learn about
Length
Diameter
Inside diameter thickness
Curvature
Vernier
€ 537,05
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VARIABLE G PENDULUM - PHYWE - P2132301
PP2132301
Principle
Investigate the oscillation behaviour of a pendulum (rod pendulum) by varying the magnitude of the components of the acceleration of gravity which are decisive for the oscillation period. The pendulum that is to be used is constructed in such a manner that its oscillation plane can be progressively rotated from a vertical orientation to a horizontal one. The angle F, by which the oscillation plane deviates from its normal vertical position, can be read from a scale.
Benefits
Quick and easy set-up
Determine the gravitational constant g immediately without knowledge of mass or moment of inertia
Automatically measure the oscillation period using the light barrier
Simulate the pendulum oscillation as it would behave on the moon
Investigate the pendulum oscillation in the vertical plane, the horizontal plane, and for any angle in between
Tasks
Measurement of the oscillation period of the pendulum as a function of the angle of inclination F of the oscillation plane for two different pendulum lengths.
Graphical analysis of the measured correlations and a comparison with the theoretical curves, which have been standardised with the measured value at F = 0.
Calculation of the effective pendulum length l for the acceleration of gravity, which is assumed to be known. Comparison of this value with the distance between the pivot point of the pendulum and the centre of gravity of the mobile pendulum weight.
On the moon's surface the "lunar acceleration of gravity" gm is only 16.6 % of the earth's acceleration of gravity g. Calculate the angle F and set it on the device such that the pendulum in the laboratory oscillates with the same oscillation period with which it would oscillate on the moon in a perpendicular position. Compare the measured oscillation period with the calculated one.
What you can learn about
Oscillation period
Harmonic oscillation
Mathematical pendulum
Physical pendulum
Decomposition of force
Moment of inertia
€ 1 108,06
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FORCED OSCILLATIONS - POHL'S PENDULUM - PHYWE - P2132701
PP2132701
Principle
If an oscillating system is allowed to swing freely it is observed that the decrease of successive maximum amplitudes is highly dependent on the damping. If the oscillating system is stimulated to swing by an external periodic torque, we observe that in the steady state the amplitude is a function of the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic torque and of the damping. The characteristic frequencies of the free oscillation as well as the resonance curves of the forced oscillation for different damping values are to be determined
Benefits
Long-lasting oscillation due to ball bearings
Damping via abrasion-resistant eddy current brake
Simple illustration of the elementary principle of forced oscillations
Suitable for demonstration and student experiments as well
Designed for large and clear shadow projection while experimenting
Tasks
A. Free oscillation
To determine the oscillating period and the characteristic frequency of the undamped case.
To determine the oscillating periods and the corresponding characteristic frequencies for different damping values. Successive, unidirectional maximum amplitudes are to be plotted as a function of time. The corresponding ratios of attenuation, the damping constants and the logarithmic decrements are to be calculated.
To realise the aperiodic case and the creeping.
B. Forced oscillation
The resonance curves are to be determined and to be represented graphically using the damping values of A.
The resonance frequencies are to be determined and are to be compared with the resonance frequency values found before hand.
The phase shifting between the torsion pendulum and the stimulating external torque is to be observed for a small damping value assuming that in one case the stimulating frequency is far below the resonance frequency and in the other case it is far above it.
What you can learn about
Angular frequency
Characteristic frequency
Resonance frequency
Torsion pendulum
Torsional vibration
Torque and restoring torque
Damped/ undamped free oscillation
Forced oscillation
Ratio of attenuation/ decrement
Damping constant
Logarithmic decrement
Aperiodic case
Creeping
€ 1 958,30
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FORCED OSCILLATIONS - POHL'S PENDULUM WITH MEASURE DYNAMICS- PHYWE - P2132780
PP2132780
Principle
If an oscillating system is allowed to oscillate freely, we can observe that the decrement of successive maximum amplitudes strongly depends on the damping value. If the oscillating system is caused to oscillate by an external torsional oscillation, we can observe that the amplitude in a stationary state is a function of the frequency and amplitude of the external periodic torsional oscillation and of the damping value. The aim of this experiment is to determine the characteristic frequency of the free oscillation as well as the resonance curve of a forced oscillation.
Benefits
Long-lasting oscillation due to ball bearings
Damping via abrasion-resistant eddy current brake
Simple illustration of the elementary principle of forced oscillations
Suitable for demonstration and student experiments as well
Easy measurement and evaluation via movement tracking software
Tasks
A. Free oscillation
Determination of the period of oscillation and characteristic frequency for the undamped case.
Determination of the period of oscillation and corresponding characteristic frequencies for various damping values. Calculation of the corresponding ratios of damping, damping constant, and logarithmic decrement.
Realisation of the aperiodic case and creeping case.
B. Forced oscillation
Determination of the resonance curve and graphical representation of the resonance curve by way of the damping values of A.
Observation of the phase difference between the torsional pendulum and the exciting, external rotation for a small damping value with different excitation frequencies.
What you can learn about
Angular velocity
characteristic frequency
resonance frequency
torsional pendulum
torsional oscillation
restoring torque
damped/undamped free oscillation
forced oscillation
ratio of damping/decrement
constant damping
logarithmic decrement
aperiodic case
creeping
€ 2 111,90
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Density of liquids - PHYWE - P2140100
PP2140100
Principle
The density of water and glycerol is determined as a function of temperature using the Mohr balance.
Benefits
Mohr density balance enables high-precision measurements
Interdisciplinary use also in applied sciences or physical chemistry
Tasks
The density of water and glycerol is measured in 1 to 2 °C steps over a temperature range from 0 to 20 °C, then in larger steps up to 50 °C.
What you can learn about
Hydrogen bond
Water anomaly
Volume expansion
Melting
Evaporation
Mohr balance
€ 2 127,11
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VISCOSITY MEASUREMENT WITH THE FALLING BALL VISCOMETER - PHYWE - P2140400
PP2140400
Principle
Due to internal friction among their particles, liquids and gases have different viscosities. The viscosity, a function of the substance's structure and its temperature, can be experimentally determined, for example, by measuring the rate of fall of a ball in a tube filled with the liquid to be investigated.
Benefits
Viscosity measurement for two fluids and any mix ratio
Viscosity measurement for different temperatures possible
Angle of falling ball viscometer can be changed
Interdisciplinary use also in applied sciences or physical chemistry
Tasks
Measure the viscosity
of methanol-water mixtures of various composition at a constant temperature,
of water as a function of temperature and
of methanol as a function of temperature.
From the temperature dependence of the viscosity, calculate the energy barriers for the displace ability of water and methanol.
€ 5 400,31
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INDEX OF REFRACTION, DIPERSION, AND RESOLVING POWER OF A PRISM SPECTROSCOPE- PHYWE - P2210500
PP2210500
€ 3 428,30
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PHOTOMETRIC LAW OF DISTANCE WITH COBRA4 - INVERSE SQUARE LAWE- PHYWE - P2240260
PP2240260
Principle
The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance.
Benefits
find out how exactly it becomes darker with increasing distance from a lightsource
get results fast and reproducible with a data-logging system
analize results easily and compare them to theory using a computer
Tasks
The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance from the source.
The photometric law of distance is verified by plotting illuminance as a function of the reciprocal value of the square of the distance.
What you can learn about
Luminous flux
Quantity of light
Luminous intensity
Illuminance
Luminance
€ 2 458,07
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HEAT CAPACITY OF METALS - PHYWE - P2330101
PP2330101
Principle
Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature. The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water.
Benefits
Compact, easily transportable setup
For both demonstration and student experiments
Tasks
To determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter by filling it with hot water and determining the rise in temperature.
To determine the specific heat capacity of aluminium, iron and brass.
To verify Dulong Petit's law with the results of these experiments.
What you can learn about
Mixture temperature
Boiling point
Dulong Petit's law
Lattice vibration
Internal energy
Debye temperature
€ 338,60
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EMITTANCE OF HOT BODIES (LESLIE CUBE)- PHYWE - P2350400
PP2350400
Principle
Thermal radiation can be measured at all surfaces as long as their temperature differs from that of the surrounding. Therefore it applies that the hotter an object is, the more radiation it emits. Also the surface colour influences the behaviour: dark surfaces emit more thermal radiation than light ones. An example for application of this effect is a heat sink which is often coated with a black layer to emit more thermal radiation.
Benefits
Simple set-up
Affordable experiment
For both demonstration and student experiments
Tasks
Measurement of the room temperature T0 (in Kelvin) before starting the experiment.
Determination and comparison of the emittance for all four sides of the Leslie cube at a constant high temperature. Therefore, the thermal radiation of a cube filled with boiling water is measured with a Moll-type thermopile.
Determination and comparison of the emittance for all four sides of the Leslie cube depending on the temperature.
Plotting the thermoelectric voltage Vth as a function of the absolute temperature T or rather T4 - T04 for each side of the cube and validation of Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation for the used Leslie cube with the collected data.
What you can learn about
Thermal radiation and emittance
Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation
Leslie's cube
Black and grey body
€ 1 860,20
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MAGNETIC FIELD OUTSIDE A STRAIGHT CONDUCTOR - PHYWE - P2430500
PP2430500
Principle
A current which flows through one or two neighbouring straight conductors produces a magnetic field around them. The dependences of these magnetic fields on the distance from the conductor and on the current are determined.
Benefits
Four different current conductors allow the observation of the magnetic field in different configurations
Experimental setup allows the visualization of the Maxwell Equations
No extra calibration needed, Teslameter is calibrated up to 1 T
Tasks
Determination of the magnetic field
of a straight conductor as a function of the current,
of a straight conductor as a function of the distance from the conductor,
of two parallel conductors, in which the current is flowing in the same direction, as a function of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors,
of two parallel conductors, in which the current is flowing in opposite directions, as a function of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors.
What you can learn about
Maxwell's equations
Magnetic flux
Induction
Superimposition of magnetic fields
Alternating current
€ 2 311,33
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FERROMAGNETIC HYSTERESIS WITH COBRA4 - PHYWE - P2430760
PP2430760
Principle
A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. The field strength — and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared.
Benefits
Simple experimental setup and intuitive handling of the software: Better results in less time
Added value due to the use of datalogging: Direct visualisation of the learning objective
Tasks
Record the hysteresis curve for a massive iron core and for a laminated one.
What you can learn about
Induction
Magnetic flux
Coil
Magnetic field strength
Magnetic field of coils
Remanence
Coercive field strength
Software included. Computer not provided.
€ 3 089,82
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POLARIZATION OF MICROWAVES -PHYWE - P2460201
PP2460201
Principle
Electromagnetic waves impact on a grating whose permeability depends on the rotation plane of the wave.
Benefits
Convenient all-in-one set includes control unit, transmitter and receiver as horn antennae, microwave probe, microwave benches, grating, slit plates, prism, and reflection/absorption plates
With the same set, all aspects of microwave physics can be studied quantitatively: polariziation, reflection, transmission, refraction, propagation, diffraction, interference, inverse square law, standing waves, conservation of energy in reflection and transmission
Very detailed experiment guides for all experiments
Tasks
The intensity of microwave radiation behind the grating is measured as a function of the angle.
What you can learn about
Microwaves
Electromagnetic waves
Transverse waves
Polarization
Malus law
€ 1 655,22
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